## Introduction to

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4th grade math is at hand. It upgrades on third grad math. You'll be in tens of thousands, not just thousands from now on. And more advanced adding and subtracting - along with multiplication and division kicks in.

Remember, math is important, because we use and need it everyday. But luckily for us, we don’t need everything that we've learned. So, some things are more important than others. Keep that in mind.

I know this is an era of computers, but in order to understand what is going on, you should learn how to do thing the old way.

Maybe you'll "drive" all your life, but you have to know how to "walk" first. And maybe, you'll find yourself sometimes, somewhere in a situation with no calculator or computer to help you - so working the old school might save you. :-)

In math, everything can be understood if explained well – step by step, and practiced enough times.

4th grade math curriculum differs from country to country, but the basics are similar.

I like how time4learning sums up 4th grade math in 17 parts and gives a pretty good picture about it. Also math.about.com is giving its solid perspective in 4 parts.

If combined – you get something like this in 8 chapters:

Whole Numbers – read, write, order, compare, round and estimate numbers up to 10.000 (some say writing numbers up to a billion, that's ten digits folks! :-O ).

Skip count by 3s, 4s, 6s, 7s, 8s, 9s and 10s to 100.

Adding and subtracting up to 4 digits. Estimating sums and differences with rounded numbers.

Multiplication table to 100 memorized. Understanding the multiplication and division table analogy. Multiplying up to 4 digit by 2 digit numbers. Introducing partial products ( 34 x 5 = (30+4) x5 = 30x5 + 4x5 ). Division with 2 digit divisors (with divisor rounding).

Selecting the right solving methods in word problems for the above mentioned four operations. (top)

Fractions and Decimals – understanding the difference in representing and a link between fractions and decimals.

Adding and subtracting fractions and decimals up to hundredths. What’s interesting to know is that percents are actually hundredths. (top)

Money – The Concept of it, why it matters. How to count and make change up to 50 dollars. Multiplication and division with money.

Money is convenient for percent, i.e. 2 decimals (0.01) calculations, if you take cents as hundredths, and dollars as whole numbers. (top)

Algebra and Patterns – Addition and subtraction with variables.

Applying both commutative and associative property in equations. Demonstrating equivalence in equations with all 4 operations.

Recognizing, making, analyzing and extending patterns with 2 or more attributes. Numeric and pictorial patterns. (top)

Geometry and Shapes – Basic geometry and spatial relationships.

Recognizing and classifying various geometric shapes and figures. Constructing 2D (square, triangle…) and 3D (cube, pyramid…) shapes from matches, toothpicks, little sticks, straws.

Recognizing lines, rays, line segments, circles, polygons and angles.

Ordered pairs (coordinates), measuring angles, applying translations, rotations, reflections with geometric figures and coordinates.

Good understanding of symmetry, congruence, similarity and transformations. (top)

• Time – understanding calendar (years, decades, centuries, and millenniums) and clock (hours, minutes, seconds) classification.

Telling time to the 1 minute interval. How to measure it, finding elapsed time and interpreting time schedules.

Reading and recording hours, minutes and seconds on both analog and digital clock.

• Customary and Metric System – understanding the attributes of length, weight and capacity. Understanding terms such as inches, feet, yards, miles, as opposed to millimeters, centimeters, meters, kilometers.

Converting customary to metric units, and vice versa.

Measuring perimeter, area, mass, capacity (how 'much' can fit into something) and volume (the amount of 'space' that is taken up). Measuring with different tools, and making estimations.

Data and Probability – Creating, recognizing and reading data from bar and line graphs, and other graphs.

Learning statistical terms such as median, range, mean and mode. Discussing the need for data and its gathering.

Understanding the concepts of probability - certainty, likelihood, and fairness of events.

Result predictions based on common sense and logic before gathering data.

Conducting various experiments and representing results on appropriately labeled graphs.

Representing probability as a fraction (1/2 for coin flip, 1/6 for cube toss). (top)

Problem solving – lists, charts, diagrams, and operations to solve word problems. (top)